An image processing system comprises an image processor configured to construct a designated functional based on a plurality of functions each associated with a corresponding portion of image information relating to at least first and second images, and to generate a target image utilizing the constructed functional. For example, the functions may comprise a set of functions ƒ1(A1), ƒ2(A2), . . . , ƒL(AL) of pixels from respective input images A1, A2, AL of the image information, and the functional may be a function F(X) of the set of functions ƒ1(A1) ƒ2(A2), ƒL(AL) where X denotes the target image and is generated by minimizing the functional F(X). The input images may be received from one or more image sources and the target image may be provided to one or more image destinations.